come across 0

come across: meaning and explanation

1: to come across something

to come across something = to find or discover something which you hadn’t been looking for; to find something by accident.

This phrasal verb is a nice alternative for discover or encounter, especially when you find something that you had not been expecting to find, or which you were not looking for.

It could be something physical (e.g. I came across a really interesting old shop the other day.) or not physical (e.g. I came across a really fascinating article in the paper this morning – would you like to take a look?).

2: to come across well/badly

The phrasal verb to come across is used to describe the impression a person gets of someone’s personality, based on how they behave.

Imagine you have a job interview. If you arrive on time, are dressed appropriately and act in a polite way, then you would probably come across well. The interviewer would get a positive impression of you.

If you arrive late, are wearing an old t-shirt, and forget the interviewer’s name, then you would almost certainly come across badly. The interviewer would get a negative impression of you.

Although it is common (and easy) to use this phrasal verb with well/badly, we can also be more specific by using to come across as sth. e.g. Your mother and I enjoyed meeting your girlfriend. She came across as a very interesting and friendly person.

Have a go at these dictation exercises to hear this phrasal verb being used in context – how much can you understand?

Dictation #1

Accent: Scotland

I've never terrible acting .
I've never across terrible acting my whole .

…I’ve never come across

The speaker used the present perfect here (I’ve never come across) because he is talking about his whole life.

The time period of the sentence is unfinished, and this is an important reason for using the present perfect instead of the past simple.

Dictation #2

Accent: England (RP)

.
I’m I badly in – I went .
I’m I came quite badly in the – I went blank.

…I went completely blank

To go blank = to forget what you were going to say next, or to have no idea how to answer a question. e.g. It was so embarrassing – I went completely blank when I was introducing him to a friend, and couldn’t remember his name.

Discussion questions

Write your answers to these questions in the comments section, and I’ll get back to you with some feedback:

  • Tell me a story of something you came across – something that you discovered or found by accident.
  • Sometimes you come across strange or interesting things when browsing the internet. Can you think of any examples?
  • Can you remember a time when you came across really well?
  • Can you remember a time when you came across really badly?
  • Have you ever met anyone who made a very bad impression on you?

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opt in 1

to opt in: meaning and explanation

If you opt into something or opt in to do something, then you agree to participate in something or do something. e.g. We offer a generous pension scheme which our employees can opt into if they wish.

This phrasal verb is commonly used to describe an official or explicit decision to participate in something. By choosing to participate, you are accepting certain rules or conditions.

When you buy something online for example, you will probably see an option to receive further communications from the company. If you tick this box, then you are opting in and the company is able to send you marketing emails.

We can use the phrasal verb opt out with the reverse meaning, when we choose not to participate or be involved in something. This is often used for things which people are automatically involved in unless they decide to no longer participate. e.g. All new employees are added to the company’s health insurance scheme, unless they decide to opt out. 

Opt-in and opt-out can be used as a nouns, e.g. We have managed to negotiate an opt-out from future projects.

Have a go at this dictation exercise to hear this phrasal verb being used in context – how much can you understand?

Micro-listening

Accent: North America

Source: Planet Money, Billboards. This episode looks at how billboards continue to be the most effective form of advertising. In this section, the speaker is giving an example of the way that new technology allows billboard advertisements to be highly personalised.

. , . , : " Macy's".
Say you up to the third floor mall. If you've share your data, that you're . So when you elevator, the mall billboard : "Shoes are 20% Macy's".
Say you to go up to the third floor of a mall. If you've in to share data, advertisers know that you're for shoes. So when you step that elevator, the mall billboard say: "Shoes are 20% at Macy's".

…say you were to go up to the third floor of a mall…

Say is being used here to introduce a hypothetical situation as an example. e.g. Say you won the lottery. Would you keep working?

Notice the alternative structure for the 2nd conditional (to describe unreal or hypothetical situations in the present): If + subject + were + infinitive. e.g. If you were to spend a little less money on clothes, then you would probably be able to afford a bigger place.

Discussion questions

Write your answers to these questions in the comments section, and I’ll get back to you with some feedback:

  • Have you opted out of anything recently?
  • As of this year, the UK will have an opt-out system for organ donation. What do you think this means?
  • Do you normally opt into or out of marketing emails?

Photo by Aaron Sebastian on Unsplash

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rule out 0

rule out: meaning and explanation

If you rule something out, then you eliminate it as an option and no longer consider it. e.g. I think we can rule out having the Christmas party on the roof terrace of The Shard – we just can’t afford it this year.

Ruling something out can also be used to say that something is impossible, or definitely won’t happen. e.g. During his speech, the Prime Minister ruled out the possibility of stepping down before the next election. 

This phrasal verb is often used with the noun ‘possibility’ – to rule out the possibility of something happening.

This phrasal verb is often use negatively to say that something is still an option or a possibility. e.g. I think it is unlikely that we’ll be making additional redundancies this year, but I wouldn’t rule it out completely.

Have a go at this dictation exercise to hear this phrasal verb being used in context – how much can you understand?

Dictation #1

Accent: North America

Although it’s , we can’t that someone fire .
Although it’s very likely, we can’t out the that someone started fire deliberately.

…someone started the fire deliberately

Deliberately is a useful synonym of on purpose or intentionally.

Discussion questions

Write your answers to these questions in the comments section, and I’ll get back to you with some feedback:

  • Think about your life over the next 5 years. Is there anything that you think definitely won’t happen?
  • Do you have any plans for the weekend? Is there anything that you are not considering as an option?

Photo by Stephen Radford on Unsplash

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back down 8

back down: meaning and explanation

If you back down, then you accept or admit that you are wrong about something, or you accept that you have lost an argument or fight. e.g. The argument went on all night, but my brother eventually backed down and apologised.

This phrasal verb can be used negatively to describe a situation in which someone will not admit that they are wrong or have lost an argument. They won’t back down. e.g. It was obvious that he had made a big mistake, but he wouldn’t back down.

Have a go at this dictation exercise to hear this phrasal verb being used in context – how much can you understand?

Dictation #1

Accent: Ireland

, .
He’s – he he’s , but to .
He’s so – he knows he’s the wrong, but refuses to down.

…He’s so stubborn

If someone is stubborn, then it is difficult to change their mind, attitude or position on something, even if they are probably wrong. This is synonymous with the word determined, but has more negative connotations.

…he knows he’s in the wrong…

If you say that someone involved in an argument is in the wrong, then you are saying that they are responsible for the argument or have done something bad or morally wrong. e.g. Sorry, but I’m not the one who is in the wrong here.

Discussion questions

Write your answers to these questions in the comments section, and I’ll get back to you with some feedback:

  • Are you a stubborn person or do you back down when you know you are in the wrong?
  • Can you remember a time when someone refused to back down?

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